Read both of US human genome projects plan, during 1991-1995 and the new goals for the project: 1998-2003 carefully. Then submit a report in order to summary of what you have learned from me and reading from those two articles. Your report should contain these following issues listed below:

Discuss all human genome project goals during the first five years plan?

Discuss their 8 specific goals for 1998-2003?

What are new plans that did not mention during the fist five year plan?


The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort that has the goal of

Analyzing the structure of human DNA

Determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes.

This project will be of immense benefit to the field of medicine. The plan was prepared jointly by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The general objective of the plan is \line to obtain the information about human DNA in the most effective and least expensive way. Thus a centrally coordinated project and technology development in the direction which focus on specific objectives together is needed. Technology development will also bring down the cost of many experiments and produce shared basic data in electronic databases that will make the information readily accessible in convenient form to all who need it. This will increase the benefit to cost ratio for genetic research and enhancement of finding application in numerous other fields. The overall program was expected to take at least fifteen years to complete (1991- 2005). Because of technological improvements, in 1993 the first five years plan were update and goals were extended for year 1994-1998 .

The five years plan during 1991-1995

The five years plan during 1998-2003

When compare goals of the first and second five years project we will see that in the first five years, the gaols were emphasis on mapping and sequencing technology development and also cooperation among research groups to get information about structure of human DNA and human gene location. At that time the technology is not sufficient for sequencing human genome and also for sharing the gene information widely. After the first five years, technology were developed efficiently in many aspects through the plan so the second five year plan change the shape of plan in some areas and allowed more ambitious approaches. In the second five year plan gene mapping could be rapidly achieve according to mapping at higher resolution and sharing data through the common marker. From gene mapping information together with high efficiency in gene sequencing, the second five year plan changed to emphasis in sequencing and can promise complete human genome sequence in year 2005. This plan was also provide goals to accomplish for further study after the human genome is complete. There will be many informations to share and to calculate thus goals about Bioinformatics development and training person in this field were added. The human gene polymorphism information which is critical for progress in human genetics and in human disease study was also set as a goal to this plan. Moreover many goals to accomplish for enhancing gene expression study that will be emphasis in the post genomic age were added in the plan.